History Study Notes

Below are some study notes for the Ch. 8 History test on Friday, January 20th.

1.) People

  • Thomas Paine- wrote “Common Sense,” which encouraged colonists to choose independence from the king.
  • Thomas Jefferson- wrote the Declaration of Independence
  • Benedict Arnold- was a Patriot and then became a traitor
  • General Cornwallis- British general who surrendered after losing the Battle of Yorktown

2.) Patriots

  • wanted to be free from the king of England
  • won the Battle of Saratoga which led to the French sending money, soldiers, and other aid to the Americans
  • their stategy down South was to make the British chase them and wear them out
  • offered African Americans freedom if they helped fight the British
  • won their independence and gained more land by winning the war and signing the Treaty of Paris

3.) Patriot Advantages and Weaknesses

  • Advantages: fighting on their home turf, knew land better, didn’t have to ship supplies overseas, had better generals like G. Washington, fought for a cause (freedom)
  • Weaknesses: had less soldiers, soldiers weren’t as well trained, didn’t have a navy

4.) British

  • Native Americans helped them fight so that the British could win and the Americans would stop taking their land
  • tried to help Cornwallis at Yorktown, but they couldn’t defeat the French Navy
  • had more soldiers, more money, better trained soldiers, had better weapons

5.) George Washington

  • General of the Continental Army fighting for independence
  • crossed the Deleware River and made a surprise attack at Trenton against German mercenaries, they also captured 1,000 prisoners there
  • his troops suffered through Valley Forge

6.) Declaration of Independence

  • said that people have the right to live, be free, and to seek happiness
  • said that King George took the rights away from the colonists and forced taxes on them

7.) Definitions

  • strategy- plan
  • declaration- a statement
  • Loyalist- someone who stayed true to Britain and supported the king
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