History Study Notes

Below are some study notes for the Ch. 10 History test on Friday, March 17th.

1.) War of 1812

  • also known as the “2nd War of Independence”
  • American entered the war after Britain kidnapped U.S. sailors
  • nickname of the USS Constitution is “Old Ironsides”
  • Tecumseh wanted the Indians to unite and keep settlers away
  • British burned Washington D.C. before attacking Fort McHenry
  • Francis Scott Key wrote the “Star Spangled Banner”
  • Native Americans helped the British fight

2.) Louisiana Purchase

  • sold to us by France
  • James Monroe was sent to negotiate the deal
  • doubled the size of the U.S.
  • Lewis and Clark was sent to explore the new western land
  • Zebulon Pike led his own expedition to find the source of the Mississippi River

3.) Andrew Jackson

  • was NOT born into a wealthy family
  • encouraged ordinary citizens to take part in government
  • Indian Removal Act allowed Jackson to remove Native Americans from their homes and march to Oklahoma
  • Supreme Court later ruled that you can’t force them to move, but Jackson ignored the ruling
  • U.S. also tried to remove Seminoles in Florida

4.) Miscellaneous

  • John Ross – fought against the Indian Removal Act in the Supreme Court
  • Sequoyah – developed the Cherokee alphabet
  • suffrage refers to the right to vote
  • Corps of Discovery was the name of the group who went with Lewis and Clark to explore the west
  • Corp of Discovery and Zebulon Pike led the way for other pioneers
  • Era of Good Feelings refers to peace and prosperity
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History Study Notes

Below are some study notes for the Ch. 9 History test on Friday, February 24th.

1.) Articles of Confederation

• gave the states more power than the national government
• states didn’t want a strong central government

2.) Constitutional Convention
• mainly benefited white men who owned land
• decided that every five slaves counted as 3 people
• decided to divide Congress into two parts, this was known as the Great Compromise
• came up with the Virginia Plan, which made 3 branches of government

3.) Branches of Government

• Legislative- consists of Congress, who make laws
• Executive- consists of the President who carries out the laws, can also veto a bill that Congress makes
• Judicial- consists of the Supreme Court who decide if a law is Constitutional or not
• the 3 branches operate under a checks and balances system to make sure that not one branch has too much power

4.) Vocabulary
• political party- a group that shares common ideas about government
• amendment- a change to the Constitution
• ordinance- a law

5.) Other Stuff
• a federal system is where the states share power with the central government
• the Bill of Rights protect the freedom of speech and religion

6.) People
• George Washington- chose the location of our country’s capital
• Thomas Jefferson- wanted to limit the power of the central government
• Alexander Hamilton- wanted to start a national bank

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History Study Notes

Below are some study notes for the Ch. 8 History test on Friday, January 20th.

1.) People

  • Thomas Paine- wrote “Common Sense,” which encouraged colonists to choose independence from the king.
  • Thomas Jefferson- wrote the Declaration of Independence
  • Benedict Arnold- was a Patriot and then became a traitor
  • General Cornwallis- British general who surrendered after losing the Battle of Yorktown

2.) Patriots

  • wanted to be free from the king of England
  • won the Battle of Saratoga which led to the French sending money, soldiers, and other aid to the Americans
  • their stategy down South was to make the British chase them and wear them out
  • offered African Americans freedom if they helped fight the British
  • won their independence and gained more land by winning the war and signing the Treaty of Paris

3.) Patriot Advantages and Weaknesses

  • Advantages: fighting on their home turf, knew land better, didn’t have to ship supplies overseas, had better generals like G. Washington, fought for a cause (freedom)
  • Weaknesses: had less soldiers, soldiers weren’t as well trained, didn’t have a navy

4.) British

  • Native Americans helped them fight so that the British could win and the Americans would stop taking their land
  • tried to help Cornwallis at Yorktown, but they couldn’t defeat the French Navy
  • had more soldiers, more money, better trained soldiers, had better weapons

5.) George Washington

  • General of the Continental Army fighting for independence
  • crossed the Deleware River and made a surprise attack at Trenton against German mercenaries, they also captured 1,000 prisoners there
  • his troops suffered through Valley Forge

6.) Declaration of Independence

  • said that people have the right to live, be free, and to seek happiness
  • said that King George took the rights away from the colonists and forced taxes on them

7.) Definitions

  • strategy- plan
  • declaration- a statement
  • Loyalist- someone who stayed true to Britain and supported the king
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Envelope Contents

Below are some items in the envelope for Tuesday, January 3rd. Items in bold need to be signed and returned the next day.

  1. Ch. 5 Math test
  2. Reading quiz
  3. Handwriting verse
  4. Accelerated math reports
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History Study Notes

Below are some study notes for the Ch. 7 History test on Friday, December 9th.

1.) The French and Indian War

* Britain fought France for control over the Ohio River Valley
* Indians were allies with France
* Both sides signed the Treaty of Paris which ended the war

2.) Taxes

* King taxed the colonies to pay for The French and Indian War
* Stamp Act- taxed anything printed on paper (newspaper, calendars, playing cards), colonists formed the Sons of Liberty to protest the Stamp Act and they would beat up the British tax collectors, they also boycotted British goods and didn’t buy their cloth, Britain then repealed (canceled) the act
* Townshend Act- King then made this act which taxed tea, glass, lead, paints, again the colonists attacked the tax collectors so the King sent British soldiers for protection, colonists boycotted again and made their own clothes, women formed the Daughters of Liberty, British then repealed the act but kept the tax on tea because the King wanted to show that he still had the power to tax if he wanted to
* Intolerable Act- this was the King’s response for the Boston Tea Party, the King closed the port of Boston which stopped trade, they stopped town meetings, and they made the colonists house and feed the British soldiers, the colonists wrote a letter to the King to ask him to repeal this act because they thought it was too harsh

3.) Battle of Lexington

* British soldiers saw minutemen there and someone fired a shot and so both sides started shooting, 8 colonists were dead, 9 wounded, only 1 British soldier was wounded
* British were actually on there way to Concord to take out the minutemen’s ammunition

4.) Battle of Concord

* minutemen surprise attacked the British while they were on their way to Concord, they shot the British from behind trees, bushes, and walls, over 250 British were killed or wounded

5.) Other Stuff

* Boston Massacre- started because a crowd threw snowballs at British soldiers
* Committees of Correspondence- started to spread news to other colonies
* The Proclamation of 1763 separated the Indians and the colonists

6.) Vocabulary

* ally- someone on your side
* protest- to voice or act out against something
* massacre- a killing of a people
* militia- an army of ordinary people

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History Study Notes

Below are some study notes for the Ch. 6 History test on Friday, November 4th.

1. Colonies

* New York – was New Netherland before King Charles gave it to his brother, colonists were allowed to take part in government, James was the propietor
* Pennsylvania – William Penn wanted a place for Christians to live in peace without being jailed
* Georgia – King gave colony to James Oglethorpe who named it after King George, a place for debtors to live in instead of being jailed in England
* Maryland – Calvert wanted this to be a refuge (safe place) for Catholics because Catholics were punished in England
* Virginia – first permanent English colony and first to have a legislature, this was called the House of Burgesses, had to be white, male, rich, and owned land in order to be in the House of Burgesses

2. Slavery

* worked on plantations, or large farms
* plantation was run by an overseer
* slaves pulled together to help each other and sang spirituals and met at night to plan escapes or tell stories
* they created new languages and gave each other hope by adopting Christianity

3. Southern Colonies

* grew lots of cash crops like rice, tobacco, and indigo
* had good soil and was hot and humid

4. Miscellaneous

* apprentice – someone who studies under a master to learn a skill
* refuge – a safe place
* debtor – someone who owes money
* legislature – a group of people who make laws
* free enterprise – opportunity to start a business
* surplus – extra

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Envelop Contents

Below are some items you should find in the envelope for Tuesday, November 1st. Items in bold need to be signed and returned the next day.

  1. Progress Report
  2. Ch. 5 History test
  3. Ch. 3 Math test
  4. Acc. Math reports
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