History Study Notes

Below are some study notes for the Ch. 12 History test on Friday, May 11th.

1.) People

  • Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth were both abolitionists who were once slaves
  • John Brown – attacked an Army post to start a slave rebellion, later was hanged
  • Abraham Lincoln – grew up on a farm and didn’t have much time to go to school
  • Harriet Tubman – led slaves to freedom
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe- wrote “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”
  • Jefferson Davis – President of the Confederates

2.) Terms

  • Fugitive Slave Law – required people to return runaway slaves to slavery
  • Dred Scott decision – Supreme Court ruled that slaves were property and had no rights
  • secede – to withdrawal from a union
  • popular sovereignty – states could make their own decision about allowing slavery
  • sectionalism – loyalty to one part of the country
  • Union – another name for the United States
  • tariff – tax on imported goods

3.) Compromises

  • Missouri Compromise of 1820 – Missouri became slave state and Maine became free state, Congress created an invisible line and all the states south of that line would allow slavery
  • Compromise of 1850 – Congress allowed popular sovereignty to some territories
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 -gave popular sovereignty to Kansas and Nebraska territories, abolitionists were upset because Nebraska was north of the line created in the Missouri Compromise, Kansas ended up being a free state

3.) Miscellaneous

  • North had more factories than the South
  • sectionalism was caused by tariffs and slavery
  • “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” told about the cruely of slavery
  • Southern states seceded to protect slavery
  • Civil War started when Confederates attacked Fort Sumter
  • abolitionists printed antislavery newspapers
  • Underground Railroad led to Canada, Mexico, Florida, Caribbean

Four states seceded after the attack on Fort Sumter

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State Relief Map Samples

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History Study Notes

Below are some study notes for the Ch. 9 History test on Thursday, February 15th.

1.) Articles of Confederation

• gave the states more power than the central government
• states didn’t want a strong central government

2.) Constitutional Convention
• mainly benefited white men who owned land
• decided that every five slaves counted as 3 people (Three-fifths rule)
• decided to divide Congress into two parts, this was known as the Great Compromise
• came up with the Virginia Plan, which made 3 branches of government

3.) Branches of Government

• Legislative- consists of Congress, who make laws
• Executive- consists of the President who carries out the laws, can also veto a bill that Congress makes
• Judicial- consists of the Supreme Court who decide if a law is Constitutional or not
• the 3 branches operate under a checks and balances system to make sure that not one branch has too much power

4.) Vocabulary
• political party- a group that shares common ideas about government
• amendment- a change to the Constitution
• ordinance- a law

5.) Other Stuff
• a federal system is where the states share power with the central government
• the Bill of Rights protect the freedom of speech and religion

6.) People
• George Washington- chose the location of our country’s capital
• Thomas Jefferson- wanted to limit the power of the central government
• Alexander Hamilton- wanted to start a national bank

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History Study Notes

Below are some study notes for the Ch. 7 History test on Friday, December 8th.

1.) The French and Indian War

* Britain fought France for control over the Ohio River Valley
* Indians were allies with France
* Both sides signed the Treaty of Paris which ended the war

2.) Taxes

* King taxed the colonies to pay for The French and Indian War
* Stamp Act- taxed anything printed on paper (newspaper, calendars, playing cards), colonists formed the Sons of Liberty to protest the Stamp Act and they would beat up the British tax collectors, they also boycotted British goods and didn’t buy their cloth, Britain then repealed (canceled) the act
* Townshend Act- King then made this act which taxed tea, glass, lead, paints, again the colonists attacked the tax collectors so the King sent British soldiers for protection, colonists boycotted again and made their own clothes, women formed the Daughters of Liberty, British then repealed the act but kept the tax on tea because the King wanted to show that he still had the power to tax if he wanted to
* Intolerable Act- this was the King’s response for the Boston Tea Party, the King closed the port of Boston which stopped trade, they stopped town meetings, and they made the colonists house and feed the British soldiers, the colonists wrote a letter to the King to ask him to repeal this act because they thought it was too harsh

3.) Battle of Lexington

* British soldiers saw minutemen there and someone fired a shot and so both sides started shooting, 8 colonists were dead, 9 wounded, only 1 British soldier was wounded
* British were actually on there way to Concord to take out the minutemen’s ammunition

4.) Battle of Concord

* minutemen surprise attacked the British while they were on their way to Concord, they shot the British from behind trees, bushes, and walls, over 250 British were killed or wounded

5.) Other Stuff

* Boston Massacre- started because a crowd threw snowballs at British soldiers
* Committees of Correspondence- started to spread news to other colonies
* The Proclamation of 1763 separated the Indians and the colonists

6.) Vocabulary

* ally- someone on your side
* protest- to voice or act out against something
* massacre- a killing of a people
* militia- an army of ordinary people

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History Study Notes

Below are some study notes for the Ch. 5 History test on Friday, October 20th.

1.) New England Colonies

-lots of trees and near the ocean for lumber and fish (cod)

-bad soil for farming

-shipbuilding was a big industry along with whale hunting

2.)Triangular Trade Route

-trade between North America, West Indies, Africa, and Europe

-slave trade was involved

-New England became rich from trading

-Middle Passage was from Africa to West Indies

-lots of slaves died on the Middle Passage from disease and lack of food

3.) People

-Roger Williams- started Rhode Island for religious freedom, he was banished from Massachusetts, believed government should be separate from the church

-Anne Hutchinson- also banished and moved to Rhode Island

4.) Other Stuff

-dissenter-a person who does not agree with his or her leaders

-King Philip’s War- colonists fought the Indians over different points of view of land, colonists killed many Indians and some were enslaved or fled

-Metacomet- also called King Philip – leader of Wampanoags – attacked colonists but was defeated because colonists had better weapons and more soldiers

-industry-a business that sells a product or a service to people

-Know how to read and label a line graph, like on pg. 182-183

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History Study Notes

Below are some study notes for the Ch. 4 History test on Friday, September 29th.

1.) Roanoke

-John White was governor

-White returned to England for supplies and didn’t return for 3 years because England was at war with Spain

-saw the word “Croatoan” on a tree when he returned, but nobody was there

2.) Jamestown

-first successful English colony

-settlers looked for gold instead of working

-many settlers died because there wasn’t enough food

-John Smith told them that had to work if they want to eat

-colonists traded goods for food with the Powhatans, Powhatans wanted the colonists to help them fight other Native Americans, but the colonists said no and this started fighting amongst them, colonists eventually took over most of the land

3.) Plymouth

-started by Pilgrims who came on the Mayflower

-named after a town in England

-signed the Mayflower Compact

-many Pilgrims died because it was winter and there wasn’t enough food

-Squanto taught the Pilgrims how to plant crops like corn, pumpkins, and beans

-He also taught them how to hunt and fish

-Pilgrims then had so much food and more settlers came from England

-they gave thanks to God for all their food and supplies- first Thanksgiving

4.) Massachusetts Bay Colony

-started by Puritans to create a colony based on their own religion

-named after the Massachuset Indians

-John Winthrop was first governor

-many Puritans eventually moved here from England

5.) Vocabulary

-Northwest Passage- shortcut back from Asia

-armada- large fleet of ships

-charter- paper giving permission for people to do something

-invest- put money into something to try and earn more money

6.) Miscellaneous

-know how to read a timeline like the one on pg. 151

-Henry Hudson- claimed land for the Dutch

-John Rolfe- married Pocahontas, which gave short peace between colonists and Powhatans

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Envelope Contents

Below are some items you should find in the envelope for Tuesday, September 19th. Items in bold need to be signed and returned the next day.

  1. Progress report
  2. Ch. 1 & 2 History test
  3. Accelerated Math reports
  4. Reading quiz x 2
  5. Math facts test
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